MEDICINE IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY AND TODAY. The feature is effective combating infectious disease through mass vaccination, the introduction of antibiotics, the sanitary measures and improving living conditions.
Specific drug treatment chemicals infectious diseases began in Germany with the work of Paul Ehrlich (1854-1915). In 1932 Gerhard Domagk (1895-1964) discovered in 1928 in England sulfonamides and Alexander Fleming (1881-1955) found the fungus Penicillium bacteriostatic action of the biochemist Howard Florey (1898-1968) Penicillin extracted in pure form page thus was antibiotics.
MEDICINE IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY AND TODAY.
Important progress has been made in the field of genetics, revealing the mode of transmission of characters, chromosome structure and role of genes and chemical structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), physical carrier of genetic information.
After already knew serum antibodies as an important factor in the body’s defense mechanisms, in the second half of the twentieth century to highlight the role of different lymphocytes in cellular immunity and antibody production.
In the early twentieth century, Clemens von Pirquet introduced the term allergy medicine. Scientific study of allergic diseases, Pirquet started, will continue during the twentieth century, with the increasing prevalence of allergic diseases in the population, leading to the development of a new field of medicine called today Allergology and Clinical Immunology.
As mentioned methods of investigation are introducing computerized tomography, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance tomography and ultrasound examinations.
In surgery, organ transplants (in 1967 the South African surgeon Christian Barnard performed the first heart transplant) give hope for survival of many otherwise incurable patients.
After Charles Sherrington (1857 – 1952) Fundamental studies on the functioning of the nervous system, Canadian Wilder Penfield (1891 – 1976) investigates cortex function by direct stimulation of the surface of the brain during surgery. The development is due mainly American neurosurgeons Harvey Cushing (1869 – 1939) and Walter Dandy (1886-1946).
Cardiology diagnostic advances made by applying methods such as angiography, cardiac catheterization and the therapeutic plan by implanting pacemakers, bypass operation in coronary obstruction, surgery in valvular disease, beta-blocker drugs, but also by the knowledge and the adoption of measures to combat risk factors (smoking, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, high blood pressure, high cholesterol). Cancer remains a problem more difficult, but anticancer drugs have been shown to be effective in some forms, as leukemia and the like.
British Medical Journal, one of the best known medicine worldwide earlier this year conducted a survey on the greatest medical discoveries around the world, year after launching the journal, in 1840.
From an initial list of more than 100 nominations made by readers of the journal, mostly doctors and researchers, a group of experts nominated 15 major discoveries in the medical world. People around the world can vote one one of these findings, on 5-14 January 2007.
These discoveries have saved millions of lives and have claimed immeasurable suffering.
Each of the 15 findings is supported by one expert of the medical world to expose the merits of that discovery, the one who discovered the modern pill to author a book on the history of penicillin.
Below cunt 15 nominations and a few words about each.
Anesthesia. A Boston dentist first used ether in 1846 and end the suffering the patient or. Since then, anesthesia became common in all operations.
Antibiotics. Alexander Fleming, a bacteriologist English, accidentally discovered penicillin in 1928 in his lab. In 1945 Fleming received the Nobel Prize for this discovery.
Chlorpromazine. Discovered in 1952, it was the first antipsychotic drug substance. It was used to treat mental illness as hallucinations, hostility or delusions. The development of this drug has brought a new understanding of mental illness.
Computers. From medical records to the insurance and computers have been used in medicine since the early 1960s Physicians can access information about new drugs, about new studies may keep track of patients.
The structure of DNA. Scientists James Watson and Francis Crick presented helix DNA, the molecule that keeps the genetic information, in 1953, and in 1962 won the Nobel Prize for this discovery.
Evidence-based medicine. As the name suggests, evidence-based medicine involves using existing data to make decisions regarding new medical cases. The term and concept were introduced in the 90s.
Germ Theory. In the late 1800s, Louis Pasteur was the first to suggest that diseases are caused by microorganisms.
Immunology. History of immunology began in 1798 when Edward Jenner discovered that people can gain immunity against smallpox. There followed many other discoveries that have helped to understand allergies and antibodies.
Medical images. X-rays were discovered accidentally all, in 1895 Since then, the field has expanded, leading to computed tomography, positron emission, magnetic resonance, ultrasound.
Pill. Since it arrived in the United States pharmacy, pill was seen as a miracle. Properly administered, it is effective in 99% expected.
Oral rehydration therapy. As the name implies, this therapy does oral administration of fluids to compensate for water loss from the body. It was first reported in 1964, now occupies a basis in treating patients with cholera, acute diarrhea and other diseases in this category.
Risks of smoking. The first report about the link between smoking and lung cancer was published in the British Medical Journal even in 1950 Since then, it is estimated that tobacco kills 440,000 Americans each year.
Sanitation. The importance of clean water for drinking has been supported since 1800 when he made the connection between various diseases and impure water. Yet today, millions of people lack access to safe drinking water.
Culture sample. Keeping a tissue culture laboratory and its growth was discovered in 1907, but it took until the 1950s to become an important tool for clinical investigatoa.
Vaccines. Vaccines help prevent a wide variety of diseases, from polio to measles. The first vaccine was discovered by Edward Jenner the smallpox in 1796